GEOLOGIC HISTORY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF WARM MINERAL SPRINGS AND LITTLE SALT SPRINGS
Warm Mineral Springs and Little Salt Springs are well known for their warm mineralized water and importance ecologically, archaeologically, and recreationally. The intimate relationship between land and sea have sculpted these features which represent unique geologic entities whose histories are recorded in their rocks and strata. This presentation attempts to “play-back” nature’s recording of the rock record of these springs to gain an appreciation for the significance of these precious sites. The sinkholes in which these springs formed, developed some 12,000 years ago, but the rocks that provided the template for them, date back some 50 million years. Countless changes in sea level, climate, depositional environments, and hydrologic regimes are represented in their history. This talk will include insights about limestone formation, sinkholes, and springs, as well as the geologic investigative tools that are employed to discover them. Projected sea level rises and their impact on these springs will also be discussed.
Dr. Randazzo is Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida where he has worked since 1967. He has written more than 50 technical papers in professional scientific publications, as well as numerous formal research abstracts and reports and special works to governmental agencies and private clients. Most noteworthy is his co-editorship of The Geology of Florida, a book published by the University Press of Florida (1997). He has received numerous research grants from federal and state agencies to investigate subjects related to hydrogeology, sedimentology and the geology of Florida. Dr. Randazzo has more than 40 years’ experience in professional evaluations of home sites, commercial properties, roadways, tunnels, bridges, and dams involving geological hazards. He was named a Senior Fulbright Research Scholar in 1995 with the Hungarian Geological Survey. He was recognized as a College of Liberal Arts & Sciences Teacher of the Year in 1999-2000. In 2001, Dr. Randazzo was appointed an Astor Visiting Lecturer at the University of Oxford, England, where he lectured on environmental issues associated with water resources and sinkhole formation. He is a Fellow of the Geological Society of America. Dr. Randazzo was appointed by both Governor Martinez and Governor Chiles to serve on the State Licensing Board of Professional Geologists. He is a Registered Professional Geologist in the State of Florida and the State of Georgia.
CLAY SOURCING BY ABORIGINAL PEOPLE OF FLORIDA
Educator, ceramic researcher, WMS/LSSAS member Ted Ehmann, will give a presentation on a research passion that led to a paper he has submitted for publication in the Florida Anthropologist “Investigating The Existence Of Clay Beds Sourced By The Aboriginal People For Ceramic Production In Central And South Florida.”
Ted has made a study of Florida pottery and prehistoric aboriginal clay sourcing by studying the works of the early researchers such as Frank Hamilton Cushing, C. B. Moore in the late 1800s and early 1900s; later works by Florida archaeologists, and current research by ceramic analysts, as well as geological and mineralogical studies from Florida and the southeastern coastal plain. In his article, recounted from the study of Cushing and Moore’s journals he notes, “…their disappointment with the lack of ceramics, and the crude nature of the ceramic vessels found while excavating burial mounds in peninsular Florida.” (Ehnmann 2018). It led him to wonder why?
This presentation will describe his research methodology, sources of information, and conclusions based on his research. As Ted states, “This article describes my investigation which resulted in the discovery of a fairly large clay less environment that is unique to south Florida and the western Gulf Coast below the big bend. The results of my research impact the archaeological record in that known and classified ceramic types could not have been produced in the locales and cultural regions as presently believed.”
Ted Ehmann was born in Trenton, NJ. He is the grandson of noted New Jersey artist, M. Frank Ehmann. He studied fine arts at the Philadelphia College of Art. Upon leaving the college in 1970, Ehmann became the preparer for archaeological artifacts for the New Jersey State Museum. Summers were spent on the many statewide archaeological digs conducted by the museum. Ehmann returned to earn his BA in art and minor in anthropology at the College of New Jersey in 1990 and his master’s in teaching in 1992.
HISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY OF THREE LOYALIST PLANTATIONS
SAN SALVADOR ISLAND, BAHAMAS
During the 1970’s archaeological studies were made of three slave plantations on the island of San Salvador in The Bahamas. These were the first systematic studies of Loyalist plantations in The Bahamas, and provided extensive information about the way of life of both the plantation owners and their slaves during this short, but pivotal era in the history of The Bahamas.
A short background history of Florida and The Bahamas during and after the American Revolution will be followed by descriptions of the three sites. Included will be maps, architectural drawings, and photos of ruins and some of the artifacts collected, as will the limited archival information available about the owners of these three plantations. This will allow for comparisons of the three sites, which have many similarities and yet vast differences, given all were established in the same, pristine environment at nearly the same time.
Kathy Gerace holds a MS degree in anthropology/archaeology from Michigan State University. In 1971, she was teaching at Elmira College in Elmira, NY, when she was asked to teach a four-week field course in historic archaeology on the island of San Salvador in The Bahamas. It was meeting the Executive Director of the field station, Dr. Donald Gerace, that led to their marriage and Kathy becoming the Assistant Director of the field station.
Over the years the field station grew to provide a venue for scientific studies and research for over 100 colleges and universities from the US, Canada, and Europe. In 1988 the Geraces formed a Bahamian, non-profit corporation named the Bahamian Field Station (BFS). Knowing that they couldn’t live forever, the Geraces gave the BFS to the College of The Bahamas (COB) in 2003, and it was renamed the Gerace Research Centre (GRC). When the COB became the University of The Bahamas (UB), the GRC became one of their campuses, and continues to provide accommodations, lab and field equipment, and all types of logistical support for professors, students, and scientific researchers in the disciplines of archaeology, biology, geology, and the marine sciences.
HISTORY AT THE WATER’S EDGE
About 7,200 years old and buried 21 feet deep below the Gulf of Mexico, 350 yards off Manasota Key is an extremely well preserved human burial site. Archaeologists are exploring what has been termed a “globally significant” discovery. National Geographic calls it an “unprecedented” find.
How was this site discovered? A diver picked up a barnacle-crusted jaw from a shallow spot off the shore of Manasota Key. The specimen sat on a paper plate in his kitchen for a couple weeks before he realized it was probably a human bone. Weeks later the diver sent a picture to Florida’s Bureau of Archaeological Research, where it landed in front of Ryan Duggins, the bureau’s underwater archaeology supervisor. “As soon as we were there (at the site) it became clear that we were dealing with something new,” Duggins recalls. First, he spotted a broken arm bone on the seabed. Then, when he noticed a cluster of carved wooden stakes and three separate skull fragments in a depression, Duggins realized he might be dealing with a Native American bog burial site—one that had been inundated by sea level rise, but was miraculously preserved.
John McCarthy, Director of Historic Spanish Point, will speak about this newly discovered burial ground that scientists are studying underwater off Manasota Key. He is Executive Director at Spanish Point as well as a writer for Sarasota Magazine. He served over 10 years an Environmental Specialist for Sarasota County responsible for providing environmental and development review for coastal resource protection and coordination of resource monitoring and enhancement projects. Mr. McCarthy was Sarasota County Historian from 1982 to 1988.
INDIAN MOUNDS OF THE CAPE CANAVERAL SEASHORE
Zooarchaeologist Irvy Quitmyer is a long-time researcher at the Florida Museum, and was collection manager from 2001-2016. His work focuses on the animal remains from sites in southeastern North America and the circum-Caribbean region. Quitmyer’s research specialty is the study of season of and age at death of animals incorporated into archaeological samples. Many but not all of these studies were based on incremental growth structures of mollusks, particularly bivalves such as the hard clam or quahog. These studies identify the season of death of organisms and therefore also the time of the year they were gathered or fished. They also illustrate the stress on animal populations from human exploitation.